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6 7, once treated in this way the skin could be split into layers, to both increase the yield and obtain the required thickness of leather. The appearance of the resulting hide was similar to that from cattle, but much tougher and less prone to scuffing. 8, by-products edit, in addition to a tannery at Tyler Street, newark, new Jersey, the Ocean leather Company had reclaiming plants. Morehead City, and, cape lookout, north Carolina plus, fort myers and. These plants handled sharks, rays, porpoises, turtles and other large sea animals that were landed by its fleet of fishing vessels. The sharks were caught in large mesh nets that trapped the animals. There were other methods used including hooking and underwater explosives, however, it was important not to damage the hide as this reduced its value. There were about twenty other processes to extract by-products from the carcasses including glue, dies, medicine, enzymes, fertilizer, animal feed, oil (from the liver ) and the fins that were sold to the Chinese market.company switched to a system that involved the hides being treated by acid. Two chemists came up with similar ideas, Theodore. Kohler and Dr Allen Rogers.
1 2, he was financially independent and well connected. In 1917, with fellow investors, he launched the Ocean leather Company for the purpose of tanning and refining shark hides. Reports at the time of the registration indicated that the company clarins was capitalised at 41 million. Ehrenreich was the company president, and Dr Russell. Coles (1865-1928) - who was a knowledgeable deep sea fisherman and fishing buddy. Theodore roosevelt - was a director and honorary president. 3 4, dermal denticles edit, placoid scales as viewed through an electron microscope. Also called dermal denticles, these are structurally homologous with vertebrate teeth. Cartilaginous fishes, like this tiger shark, have placoid scales (dermal denticles). Shark skin is covered with placoid scales, or dermal denticles; leather made with these scales still attached is referred.
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Alfred Ehrenreich (1882-1931) had been fascinated by sharks from an early age. He helped to start a business in America that caught and clinicas processed them in large numbers on a commercial basis. He believed they were a limitless resource from which oils, chemicals, fertilizers, food and leather could be obtained. He later made attempts to expand the business to europe, africa and Australia. Contents, background edit, ehrenreich, was from, moravia and moved to America in 1914; he was described as an ex-banker, chemist and naturalist. His parents, who lived in vienna, were rosalie konag and Moritz Ehrenreich. He married Margaret Elsa (Grete) koehler (1893-1960) from Dresden, germany, on 4 December 1916 in Manhattan and naturalized as an American citizen hands in 1920.
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During this period, Steiner maintained an original approach, replacing Madame Blavatsky 's terminology with his own, and basing his spiritual research and teachings upon the western esoteric and philosophical tradition. This and other differences, in particular Steiner's vocal rejection of leadbeater and Besant 's claim that Jiddu Krishnamurti was the vehicle of a new maitreya, or world teacher, 33 led to a formal split in 1912/13, 9 when Steiner and the majority of members. (Steiner took the name "Anthroposophy" from the title of a work of the austrian philosopher Robert von Zimmermann, published in vienna in 1856. 34 ) The Anthroposophical Society and its cultural activities edit first goetheanum English sculptor Edith Maryon belonged to the innermost circle of founders of anthroposophy and was appointed to head the section of Sculptural Arts at the goetheanum. The Anthroposophical Society grew rapidly. Fueled by a need to find an artistic home for their yearly conferences, which included performances of plays written by Edouard Schuré and Steiner, the decision was made to build a theater and organizational center. In 1913, construction began on the first goetheanum building, in Dornach, switzerland. The building, designed by Steiner, was built to a significant part by volunteers who offered craftsmanship or simply a will to learn new skills.
31 Dissatisfaction with his editorial style eventually led to his departure from the magazine. In 1899, Steiner kruidvat married Anna eunicke; the couple separated several years later. Anna died in 1911. The Theosophical Society edit marie steiner 1903 main article: Rudolf Steiner and the Theosophical Society In 1899, Steiner published an article, "Goethe's Secret revelation discussing the esoteric nature of goethe's fairy tale The Green Snake and the beautiful Lily. This article led to an invitation by the count and countess Brockdorff to speak to a gathering of Theosophists on the subject of nietzsche.
Steiner continued speaking regularly to the members of the Theosophical Society, becoming the head of its newly constituted German section in 1902 without ever formally joining the society. 9 32 It was also in connection with this society that Steiner met and worked with Marie von sivers, who became his second wife in 1914. By 1904, Steiner was appointed by Annie besant to be leader of the Theosophical Esoteric Society for Germany and Austria. In contrast to mainstream Theosophy, steiner sought to build a western approach to spirituality merk based on the philosophical and mystical traditions of European culture. The german Section of the Theosophical Society grew rapidly under Steiner's leadership as he lectured throughout much of Europe on his spiritual science.
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28 Two years later, he published die philosophie der Freiheit ( The Philosophy of Freedom or The Philosophy of Spiritual Activity —steiner's preferred English title) (1894 an exploration of epistemology and ethics that suggested a way for humans to become spiritually free beings. Steiner later spoke of this book as containing implicitly, in philosophical form, the entire content of what he later developed explicitly as anthroposophy. 29 Rudolf Steiner 1900 In 1896, Steiner declined an offer from Elisabeth Förster-nietzsche to help organize the nietzsche archive in naumburg. Her brother by that time was non compos mentis. Förster-nietzsche introduced Steiner into the presence of the catatonic philosopher; Steiner, deeply moved, subsequently wrote the book friedrich nietzsche, fighter for Freedom.
30 Steiner later related that: "My first acquaintance with nietzsche's writings belongs to the year 1889. Previous to that I had never read a line of his. Upon the substance of my ideas as these find expression in The Philosophy of Spiritual Activity, nietzsche's thought had not the least etzsche's ideas of the ' eternal recurrence ' and of ' übermensch ' remained long in my mind. For in these was reflected that which a personality must feel concerning the evolution and essential being of humanity when this personality is kept back from grasping the spiritual world by the restricted thought in the philosophy of nature characterizing the end of the 19th. What attracted me particularly was that one could read nietzsche without coming upon anything which strove to make the reader a 'dependent' of nietzsche's." 16 : Chap. 18 In 1897, Steiner left the weimar archives and moved to berlin. He became part owner of, chief editor of, and an active contributor to the literary journal Magazin für Literatur, where he hoped to find a readership sympathetic to his philosophy. Many subscribers were alienated by Steiner's unpopular support of Émile zola in the Dreyfus Affair 31 and the journal lost more subscribers when Steiner published extracts from his correspondence with anarchist John Henry mackay.
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I confirmed for myself by means of geometry the feeling that I must speak of a world 'which is not seen'." 16 Steiner believed that at the age of 15 he had gained a complete understanding of the concept of time, which he considered. 21 At 21, on the train between his home village and vienna, steiner met an herb gatherer, felix Kogutzki, who spoke about the spiritual kopen world "as one who had his own experience therein". 16 :3940 23 Kogutzki conveyed to Steiner a knowledge of nature that was non-academic and spiritual. Writer and philosopher edit rudolf Steiner around 1891/92, etching by Otto Fröhlich In 1888, as a result of his work for the kürschner edition of goethe 's laser works, Steiner was invited to work as an editor at the goethe archives in weimar. Steiner remained with the archive until 1896. As well as the introductions for and commentaries to four volumes of goethe's scientific writings, Steiner wrote two books about goethe's philosophy: The Theory of Knowledge Implicit in goethe's World-Conception (1886 24 which Steiner regarded as the epistemological foundation and justification for his later work. 26 During this time he also collaborated in complete editions of the works of Arthur Schopenhauer and the writer jean paul and wrote numerous articles for various journals. In 1891, Steiner received a doctorate in philosophy at the University of Rostock, for his dissertation discussing Fichte's concept of the ego, 9 27 submitted to heinrich von Stein, whose seven books of Platonism Steiner esteemed. 14 Steiner's dissertation was later published in expanded form as Truth and Knowledge: Prelude to a philosophy of Freedom ( German : Wahrheit und Wissenschaft vorspiel einer Philosophie der Freiheit with a dedication to Eduard von Hartmann.
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In 1869, when Steiner was eight years old, the family moved to the village of neudörfl and in October 1872 Steiner proceeded from the village school there to the realschule in wiener neustadt. 2 In 1879, the family moved to Inzersdorf to enable Steiner to attend the vienna Institute of Technology, 17 where he studied mathematics, physics, chemistry, botany, biology, literature, and philosophy on an academic scholarship from 1879 to 1883, at the end of which time. 2 :446 18 :29 In 1882, one of Steiner's teachers, karl Julius Schröer, 16 : Chap. 3 suggested Steiner's name to joseph Kürschner, chief editor of a new edition of goethe's works, 19 who asked Steiner to become the edition's natural science editor, 20 a truly astonishing opportunity for a young student without any form of academic credentials or previous publications. 18 :43 Rudolf Steiner as 21-year-old student (1882) Before attending the vienna Institute of Technology, steiner had studied Kant, fichte and Schelling. 21 Early spiritual experiences edit When he was nine years old, Steiner believed that he saw the spirit of an aunt who had died in a far-off town asking him to help her at a time when neither he nor his family knew of the. 22 Steiner later related that as a child he felt "that one must carry the knowledge of the spiritual world within oneself after the fashion of geometry. For here one is permitted to know something which the mind alone, through its elzen own power, experiences. In this feeling I found the justification for the spiritual world that i experienced.
Goetheanum, a cultural centre to house all mask the arts. 10 In the third phase of his work, beginning after World War i, steiner worked to establish various practical endeavors, including Waldorf education, biodynamic agriculture, 11 and anthroposophical medicine. 12 Steiner advocated a form of ethical individualism, to which he later brought a more explicitly spiritual approach. He based his epistemology on Johann Wolfgang goethe 's world view, in which "Thinking is no more and no less an organ of perception than the eye or ear. Just as the eye perceives colours and the ear sounds, so thinking perceives ideas." 13 A consistent thread that runs from his earliest philosophical phase through his later spiritual orientation is the goal of demonstrating that there are no essential limits to human knowledge. 14 Contents biography edit Childhood and education edit The house where rudolf Steiner was born, in present-day croatia steiner's father, johann(es) Steiner ( left a position as a gamekeeper 15 in the service of count hoyos in Geras, northeast Lower Austria to marry one. Johann became a telegraph operator on the southern Austrian railway, and at the time of Rudolf's birth was stationed in Kraljevec in the muraköz region of the austrian Empire (present-day donji Kraljevec in the međimurje region of northernmost Croatia ). In the first two years of Rudolf's life, the family moved twice, first to mödling, near vienna, and then, through the promotion of his father to stationmaster, to pottschach, located in the foothills of the eastern Austrian Alps in Lower Austria. 12 Steiner entered the village school; following a disagreement between his father and the schoolmaster, he was briefly educated at home.
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For other people named Rudolf Steiner, see. Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner (27 (or 25) February 1861 5 ) was an, austrian philosopher, social reformer, architect and esotericist. 6 7, steiner gained initial recognition at the end of the nineteenth century as a price literary critic and published philosophical works including. The Philosophy of Freedom. At the beginning of the twentieth century he founded an esoteric spiritual movement, anthroposophy, with roots in, german idealist philosophy and theosophy ; other influences include, goethean science and. In the first, more philosophically oriented phase of this movement, Steiner attempted to find a synthesis between science and spirituality. 8, his philosophical work of these years, which he termed " spiritual science sought to apply the clarity of thinking characteristic of Western philosophy to spiritual questions, 9 :291 differentiating this approach from what he considered to be vaguer approaches to mysticism. In a second phase, beginning around 1907, he began working collaboratively in a variety of artistic media, including drama, the movement arts (developing a new artistic form, eurythmy ) and architecture, culminating in the building of the.